What Is Vegan Leather Made Out Of?

Vegan leather is often made from polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride. Polyurethane, sometimes abbreviated as PU, is a type of organic polymer composed of urethane (rubber) links. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), another popular synthetic plastic polymer, is made of polymerized vinyl chloride.

Both PVC and PU leather are made to mimic the look and feel of real animal skin, but their properties are quite different. Authentic leather is thicker and heavier than faux leather and authentic leather is less prone to peeling and cracking over time, as it absorbs more moisture than faux leathers do.

Vegan leather fabrics are essentially imitation leather. The benefit of choosing vegan leather is that it’s less costly to manufacture, which means its retail value is usually lower. On top of that, faux leathers do not contain animal products or products tested on animals. The ethical concerns surrounding fast fashion have caused brands like Burberry, Gucci, Versace, and Prada to ban fur in recent years.

The Truth About Vegan Leather

Vegan leather should not necessarily be thought of as an eco-friendly alternative to real leather. Most vegan and faux leathers are made of plastics containing synthetic polymers, which are derived from nonrenewable petrochemicals, i.e. crude oil and natural gases. At each phase of plastic’s lifecycle, from fossil fuel extraction and refining to manufacturing and use, and even end-of-life (incineration, recycling) greenhouse gases are generated because of these petrochemical ingredients. According to a study titled “Microfiber Release from Different Fabrics During Washing“, leathers made of synthetic plastics shed pollutants during wash and dry cycles. When plastic fabrics are exposed to physical stress, they release microfibers and greenhouse gases into the air and water.

Plant-Based Leather

The good news is that not all vegan leathers are made equal. Plant-based leathers are more environmentally friendly than conventional plastic leathers, and they’re vegan! Plant-based leather is made from repurposed plant material and agricultural wastes. If you’re interested in sustainable vegan leather, then make sure the fabric that you buy is manufactured from organic, renewable sources rather than synthetic plastics.

Vegan Leather for Sale

If you’re interested in vegan leather products, consider shopping at Nordstrom, Target, Free People, or Urban Outfitters. When buying your faux leather, be sure to read the product label to find out what materials it’s made from. Finding a vegan product is not the same as finding a plant-based one. Vegan fabrics will not necessarily contain any animal-derived materials but may contain synthetic plastics, which can contribute to the build-up of pollutants in air and waterways. For more sustainable fashion, be sure that your purchases are made from renewable sources such as food waste, various crops, vegetable extracts, and or wood.

Vegandale Chicago

festival crowd with hands in the air
festival crowd

Vegandale is a food festival in Chicago, Illinois. Hundreds of people gather downtown every summer to celebrate animal welfare and sustainability. Approved Vegandale vendors are allowed to sale cruelty-free products, such as soaps, fashion, foods and drinks. The Chicago event is essentially an outdoor party that brings people from across the country together.

Vegandale’s cultural attractions are just as important as its food, it includes music, contests, performing artists, etc. For this reason, it attracts vegans as well as meat-eaters, and everyone in between. So while sampling great tasting plant-based foods, visitors can also be entertained.

Vegandale takes place at Grant Park, 100 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL.

Vegandale Chicago

Vegans and vegetarians are welcome to apply as vendors at Vegandale in Chicago. Visit their website to contact a representative for merchant opportunities. The event is 100% vegan, so all products must be free of animal derivatives. Vegandale emphasizes the moral imperative for the vegan lifestyle. Chicagoans are encouraged to step out of their comfort zone and try products that avoid animal exploitation. 

 Vegandale Tickets

Chicago Vegandale tickets are available online here. “Early Bird” tickets are only $10.00. Vegandale also has “Chicago Pack of 4” tickets for sale for $30.00. The tickets permit access to the event from 11:00 am – 7:00 pm. Vegandale allows children ages 12 and under to be admitted for free, as long as an adult ticket holder accompanies them. 


People attend vegan festivals to share creative vegan and vegetarian dishes every year. The dishes on offer are ideal for clean eaters or anyone who’s dieting. These foods are generally light in calories and shouldn’t make you drowsy as you move through your day in Chicago. If you have not already been to a vegan festival, consider adding Vegandale to your list of stops.

Food festivals in Chicago can usually be a pain for parking; luckily, Vegandale suggests that its participants use Millennium Park Garage and Millennium Lakeside Garage. If driving is not an option, public transportation (train or bus) will certainly be your next best bet. If all else fails, consider renting a Divvy bike from one of the city’s 608 stations.

Goodfood Chicago

Goodfood is a well-known international food vendor. They will likely make another appearance at the next Vegandale gethering. Other vendors at the event include:

  • Vegan Street Food Chicago
  • The Bakehouse
  • Cinnaholic
  • Native Foods
  • Sweet Vegan Bites
  • Happy Bottom
  • Unearth Goodness
  • Mermaid’s Munchies
  • Danie’s Natural Juice Blends
  • Gr8 Bakes, Paulie Gee’s
  • Kale My Name
  • Justveggies
  • Vegan Bakers Man

Chicago Vegan Fest

If you’re a Chicago resident or just visiting, check to see if there are any vegan festivals that you might be interested in nearby. These fests make for a great time in the windy city during the summer. Whether you are going on a romantic date, vacationing with friends, or backpacking solo, events like Vegandale are well worth the price of admission.  

Vegan Leather vs Real Leather

leather jackets hanging on coat rack

There are several differences between vegan and real leather. One factor that many wonder about is the quality and durability. While vegan leather is usually considered to be more environmentally friendly, the material is thinner and can become less durable over time, while genuine leather is sturdy and can last decades years with proper maintenance.

The main benefit of vegan leather is that it’s less expensive than leather made from animal skin. The synthetic materials in vegan leather usually consist of organic polymers, like polyurethane, which are cheaper to manufacture than authentic leather. Synthetic, vegan leathers are also much easier to clean, as of their high plastic content. On the other hand, authentic leathers have pores and are thus more prone to absorbing liquid and staining.

The downside of vegan leather is that it won’t last as long as real animal skin. Synthetic leathers do not bend well, so they tend to wrinkle and crack over time. Another drawback to vegan leather is that many of them are made from plastics that contain synthetic polymers, which are derived from nonrenewable petrochemicals, like crude oil and natural gases. Plastics are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions at each stage of their lifecycles, from production to landfills. This is why it’s important to find synthetic leathers that are created with plant-based materials, rather than plastic products.

What Is Bonded Leather?

Bonded leather is a mix of real and faux leather. This material is a combination of recycled real leather that has been blended with synthetic leather. The threads are rolled together with adhesives and bonded onto a paper backing to create bonded leather. Some leather-making companies also add coatings of polyurethane to provide a skin-like texture. If you’re wondering if your product is made with bonded leather, check for the following names:

  • LeatherSoft
  • Faux Leather
  • Composite
  • Vinyl
  • Reconstituted

Vegan Leather Fabric for Sale

Popular places to purchase vegan leather include Etsy, Fabric.com, and more websites. Vegan leather is relatively cheap to acquire; Walmart even sells faux leather textiles for less than $5. Shop faux leather fabric by the yard at your trusted fabric provider. Many people report that it’s easier to work with and make vegan leather leather pants, jackets, and other fabric items. 

Is Seitan Healthy For Weight Loss?

woman holding tape measurer around waist

Plant-based diets are more than just a strategy for promoting sustainable agriculture, they can also improve weight loss efforts and reduce heart disease risks. Plant proteins like seitan are generally lower in fats and carbohydrates compared to animal proteins, so seitan is an ideal food while dieting for weight loss. Carbohydrates are macronutrients taken from the foods that we consume. Our bodies then convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is used as energy.

Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Vegan Diets On Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health

A 2014 randomized controlled trial titled, “Effect of a 6-Month Vegan Low-Carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) Diet On Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Weight In Hyperlipidaemic Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial“, compared the effects of low-carbohydrate vegan diets (containing protein and fat from plant-based sources) to high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (containing some animal sources of protein and fat).

Research Method and Design

The 23 participants who completed the study were technically overweight, hyperlipidemic men and women. They were instructed to eat either the low carbohydrate or the high carbohydrate meal plan over six months after finishing a one-month-all variation of the diets. The macronutrient intake for the low-carbohydrate meal plan had 26% of energy come from carbohydrates, 31% from protein, and 43% from fat. For the high-carbohydrate meal plan, 58% of energy came from carbohydrates, 16% from protein, and 25% from fat.

The results of the study: weight loss for the low-carbohydrate group increased to -15.2 pounds compared to the -12.7 pounds weight loss increase for the high-carbohydrate participants. In addition, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (also known as bad cholesterol) and triglyceride reductions were more pronounced in the low-carbohydrate group.

In Conclusion

The study’s authors conclude that low-carbohydrate vegan diets that get protein and fat from plant foods like seitan have weight loss advantages over high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets that contain animal fats and proteins. Furthermore, low-carb vegan diets had greater lipid-lowering benefits than high-carb diets did, making low-carb vegan diets superior for limiting heart disease risks.

Recipes With Seitan

barbeque (BBQ) seitan strips
saucy BBQ seitan strips

Barbeque seitan ribs may be one of the best ways to enjoy seitan. Seitan has a stringy, chewy texture that is often compared to that meat. Seitan is thus an ideal substitute for meat in a variety of dishes. The benefit is that seitan can be eaten guilt-free – as it is made exclusively from pure wheat gluten and therefore is not as resource intensive as animal-derived foods. If you want to make some seitan barbeque ribs, feel free to try out our version of it below, starting with the ingredients listed below.

The Ingredients:

1 cup vital wheat gluten

1 cup nutritional yeast

1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

2 teaspoon garlic powder

½ cup soy sauce 

1 cup of herbal broth (herbs of your choosing; we used 1 part pesto, 1 parts basil, add water)

1 tablespoon tomato paste

2 cloves of minced garlic

2 teaspoon salt-free seasoning

barbeque sauce of your choosing (we used Sweet Baby Ray’s Barbeque Sauce)

How To Make Seitan

First, we need to make our seitan strips! You’ll need to combine the vital wheat gluten flour, nutritional yeast, ground ginger, and garlic powder, then add them to a bowl of your choosing. Then start adding water to the bowl of ingredients and stir the combination. Very quickly, you’ll notice that the ingredients are taking on a thick, doughy form. At this point, you want to put your mixing tool away and use your hands to continue to mix the doughy clump. If necessary, add a little water at a time until your doughy form has a bread-like consistency. In a separate bowl, you’ll want to mix your soy sauce and homemade herbal broth.

Knead your seitan dough repeatedly for about 10 minutes. Although this will seem like forever, it’s important to iron out any inconsistencies in the dough. Take a 5-minute break and then knead your gluten seitan dough for 10 more minutes (last time, we promise). and then knead a few more times. Once you’re happy with the dough’s texture and consistency, you’ll separate the dough into 1-inch thick “cutlets”. Each morsel will expand once its cooked, so make sure to stretch them out at this point. To do this, you will gently tug at each cutlet from its ends, stretching it thin. You will want to stretch your seitan thin so that once it expands, it will not be too thick to chew. At this point, you can put your herbal broth and soy sauce mixture to a small pan, and let the mixture simmer over a low flame.

Make sure that your herbal broth is not preheated. You want the picture to be at least room temperature so that your gluten cutlets stay intact and firm. Place your cutlets into the herbal broth, partially cover the top of the pot, and cook on high heat. At this point, you can simply let your cutlets cook, flipping them at least once every 8 minutes or so. Your cutlets will begin to absorb the broth and harden. Now that you can add the tomato sauce to ensure that your cutlets take in more flavor. Once your seitan cutlets are finished cooking, you’ll notice that the center of the strips are firm, as are the ends. Your cutlets are now ready to be introduced to a barbeque sauce of your choosing, and perhaps served as “rib” sandwiches or with grilled vegetables!

Is Seitan Healthy?

Seitan is a vegan type of meat alternative that has a reputation for being a dense source of protein and other nutrients – such as omega-6 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, and selenium. Since seitan is made from pure wheat-derived gluten, it is packed full of protein. Seitan contains no dairy, which means it is compatible with a low-cholesterol diet plan. Seitan also contains no soy, which means that it is ideal for vegans and vegetarians that have soy sensitivities.

Tell Us What You Think

This recipe was exciting to try out and took 3 tries to perfect! Of course, there is more than one way to do it and we encourage you to add your own original flavors to the meal. If you tried barbeque (BBQ) seitan “ribs” out our way, leave us a comment and tell us what you thought. If you happened to make your own version of this recipe, we would love to give your recipe a try, so please share!


home made seitan chunks in bowl

Seitan is a plant protein sourced that is low in calories, low in carbohydrates, low in fat, contains zero cholesterol, and is high in protein – as it is made from wheat gluten. Wheat gluten is a mixture of two main proteins with differing solubility: gliadins and glutenins protein fractions.

Beyond its relatively high protein content, seitan can be the dietary source for other nutrients, including iron, selenium, phosphorus, and calcium. Seitan is also low in carbohydrates and fats, which makes it ideal for people who are dieting for weight loss or weight management.

According to Kerith Duncanson, a senior research fellow at the School of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Newcastle, a portion of no bigger than the size of the palm of a person’s hand contains approximately 75 grams of protein. This means that seitan contains about three times as much protein as beef or lamb. Hunter adds that a portion no bigger than the size of the palm of a person’s hand contains 75 grams of protein.

In addition, plant proteins including seitan have not been associated with increased risks of heart disease. which is the leading cause of death in the United States, according to the CDC. Seitan and other plant proteins are therefore healthy alternative to animal meats.

Make It Yourself

Although it’s convenient to make seitan at home, many people prefer to buy it pre-made from stores and restaurants to save time. However, store-bought seitan can come with extra sodium, flavoring, preservatives, or oils. The best way to avoid subtracting from the nutritional quality of your seitan is to make it yourself. Making your seitan yourself not only safeguards you against undesirable additives, but it also allows you to better customize the meal to your liking.

To make seitan, one simply needs to knead wheat flour with water until sticky, stretchy strings develop. Once the dough is rinsed, its starch falls away, leaving the gluten protein core, which can then be shaped, seasoned and cooked. Plant-based eaters, vegans and vegetarians commonly use seitan as a substitute for animal meat foods because seitan has a stringy, chewy texture that resembles animal flesh.

People with gluten allergies or celiac disease should not ingest seitan. Celiac disease is an immune condition in which those who have it experience an increase in inflammation as a direct result of gluten consumption. For those who do not have celiac disease, gluten has no demonstrable adverse health effects associated with it.


slab of raw beef
slab of raw beef

This year, the food company Epicurious decided that it would not add anymore beef recipes to its “recipe’s list”. The company stated that it will no longer feature recipes that include beef on its homepage or social media feed. Epicurious made it obvious that they were leaving beef behind for climate change, and posted that “… think of this decision as not anti-beef but rather pro-planet”. In this decision, Epicurious supports sustainable agriculture in more ways that one.

Why Has Epicurious Banned Beef Recipes?

To promote sustainable agriculture, Epicurious will not longer add beef recipes to its site. The consequences of unsustainable farming practices are most apparent in water and land use. Livestock animals eat massive amounts of vegetation so that they can meet their caloric requirements. Cows are large animals and are costly to raise to maturity. Just one dairy cow may consume tens of thousands more calories than any human does, and their calories come strictly for plants. Growing enough food for livestock limits the amount of land and water that could be used for human consumable crops. Livestock animals also need space to roam, play and interact.

Why Are Cows Bad for the Environment?

We must be tactful in how we use land, as it is not an unlimited asset. The same is true of our air. Methane is an element of natural gas found in underground reserves, produced in land-fills and released during enteric fermentation in ruminants, like cows. As mentioned in Epicurious’ blog post, “Every Question You Have About Cattle, Climate, and Why Epicurious Is Done With Beef”, the crops fed to livestock is made using pesticides and fertilizer that are derived from fossil fuels.

When that feed is metabolized in cows, it is converted into manure that is then spread over fields or runs off into water ways. In certain water systems, organic waste introduces excess nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and facilitates algae overgrowth. Algae blooms deplete the oxygen and sunlight from surface water ecosystems, causing illness and sometimes death in other species within the environment. On land, manure releases nitrous oxide and methane into airways and drives rising temperatures. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that in 2019, 10 percent of America’s greenhouse gas emissions came from its agriculture sector.

Epicurious has expressed that not eating beef is a means to reduce one’s carbon footprint. Here at ecoTreatise, we believe pork, chicken, seafood and dairy may also be left behind if chefs are looking to further reduce their overall environmental impacts. Sustainable lifestyles require that we be mindful of the water, land and energy intensity of the products we consume.

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Anti Inflammatory Foods List

Great Value Antioxidant Blend with strawberries, blueberries and rasberries
Great Value Antioxidant Blend with strawberries, blueberries and rasberries

Inflammation is the body’s immune response to infections, injuries, diseases, and disorders which generally helps the body heal itself. Sometimes inflammation occurs when it’s not supposed to, or it may occur in excess, or persist longer than it needs to. In these cases, inflammation can be the source of a problem, rather than the solution to it. Cardiovascular disease, infections, diabetes, and allergies are conditions associated with chronic inflammation. Luckily, some foods and plants contain anti-inflammatory properties, which can be used to reduce or manage inflammation levels. The below list of anti-inflammatory foods are all vegan-friendly!

What Is Inflammation?

Inflammation is your immune system’s cellular and molecular reaction aimed at healing harmful stimuli that may be prompted by several factors, including pathogens, damaged cells, toxic compounds, or irradiation. The inflammatory response happens when specialized cells recognize detrimental stimuli and activate inflammatory pathways. Once inflammatory markers are released, inflammatory cells are sent to respond to the inciting stimuli.


Berries are arguable the most essential anti-inflammatory food item. Blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, elderberries, raspberries and strawberries – as well as dozens of other fruits – contain anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are pigments that have an array of health benefits. This miraculous compound is anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenesis, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-microbial. Not to mention, most fruits and berries are rich in antioxidants, meaning that they help protect bodily cells against oxidative stress.


Turmeric is an India-native plant which is readily available in most super markets and local groceries around the world. Turmeric contains curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, a protein complex involved in cellular inflammatory responses. Curcumin has also proven useful in improving systemic markers of oxidative stress, which is closely associated with inflammation and chronic disease.

Capsicum Baccatum Peppers

Capsicum baccatum is a South American and South African species of chili pepper that is has a sweetish flavor and a pungent, hot taste. A 2012 study by researchers Aline Rigon Zimmer, Bianca Leonardi, DiogoMiron, Elfrides Schapoval, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira and Grace Gosmann suggests that the butanol and the crude ethanolic extracts of Capsicum baccatum showed anti-inflammatory effects.


Broccoli contains phytonutrients, vitamins (C, A, K and B) and is low in fat. Broccoli can be used to treat oxidation and fight disease. Broccoli suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β by blocking NF-κB production in the body.

Berlin Universities Go Vegan

Beginning this October, 2021, cafeterias at 20 Berlin universities will make their menus 68% vegan, 48% vegetarian, and 4% meat and fish. Mondays will be completely meat exempt, meaning that there will be no meat options available in the canteens on those days. It appears that there’s an emerging demographic of vegan eaters among Germany’s student body. The demand among Berlin students likely prompted the university’s decision to include plant-based options. However, the decision may have also been inspired by the desire to reduce carbon footprints in universities across Berlin.

Its thanks to the work of Studierendenwerk, a student affairs non-profit group, Berlin’s university cafeteria menus have been adding plant-based options over the past year or so. Daniela Kummle of Studierendenwerk told the Gaurdian that “we developed a new nutritional concept mainly because students have repeatedly approached us with the request for a more climate-friendly offer at their canteens”. Kummle says that the success of vegan and vegetarian options in canteens are evidence of transitions in student behavior. It may be fair to say that student’s minds are also undergoing a shift in Berlin.

Why Have Berlin University Cafeterias Dropped Meat

Greenhouse gas emissions from the production livestock goods, especially beef, are relatively high compared to what it takes to produce plant based foods. Livestock accounts for nearly 15% of greenhouse gas emissions globally; 41% of those emissions are borne from making beef foods.

Globally, generous amounts of farm land space are dedicated to the crops needed to feed dense populations of livestock animals, pigs, cows, chicken, sheep and goat. These animals, being animals primarily herbivorous, have diets that consist of wheat, barely, silage, wheat, oats, corn, seeds and fruits. Our World in Data estimates that 80% of global agriculture acreage is taken up by livestock operations, even though livestock operations generate less than 20% of the world’s consumed calories.

Diets that are more plant based can limit the amount of farm acreage that is allotted for livestock and animal crops. Reducing meat consumption will effectively decrease the demand for animals in agriculture. Also, switching to more plant-based foods could help save water. Fruit and vegetable crops require less fresh water than animal-feed crops. Animal products produce less food per ton of product than fruit and vegetable crops, making the water footprint of animal products higher than that of crop products. In order to conserve water and make better use of farm land, we can rethink our relationship with food and the way we practice agriculture.

Agriculture Waste Management

The fight against climate change may seem daunting, but agriculture may be the best sector to start. Agriculture production is a major part of the climate change issue because of its greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are gases that absorb and reemit heat energy. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone. Some of these gases are emitted as a product of agricultural activity.

What Can You Do?

Appropriately managing agriculture, food, and waste is crucial for achieving our climate change mitigation goals. In practice, this could entail transitioning to a plant based-diets, shopping locally, buying seasonal foods, and reducing household food waste.

  • Plant-based diets increase the amount of acreage available for human-consumable crops by reducing the demand for animal feed crops.
  • Buying local and in-season foods lessens energy for transporting foods across long distances.
  • Reducing food waste prevents organic products from being disposed between shopping trips.

According to United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) estimations, nearly one-third of the food produced globally ultimately ends up as waste. Reducing waste can be as simple as tracking the foods or the number of calories that your household regularly consumes between grocery trips. Once you know how much you eat, you can limit the number of perishable foods that you purchase to fit your household’s consumption habits. This simple tip can save consumers money and reduce household methane footprints.

ripe apple, avocados and banana

The way we store fresh fruits and vegetables can determine the rate at which they ripen and how long they ultimately last. For example, certain fruits ripen at a slower rate when stored separately from other foods due to ethylene. Ethylene is produced in multiple fruits, including apples, avocados, bananas, kiwis, peppers, and tomatoes. Ethylene is a natural gas that is the apparent source of the ripening and eventually the spoiling process. As fruits ripen, the amount of ethylene that they emit can increase. This gas not only expedites the ripening rates in the fruits that produce it, but also in nearby fruits. Storing your fruits separately can extend the rate at which they ripen and allow them to last longer.